The Dutch Empire and the Treaty of Utrecht 1713

Few people understand that the Dutch run a World Empire. That empire is hidden in secrets and uses divide and rule methods to achieve its aims. This weblog entry will explain this, though without giving away too many details since a secret empire wields more power.

We start with the horse. Since this text is read world-wide and some people in the world may not know who a horse is, we include a photograph of Fokke, taken by Winnie of the Friesian horse forum.nl, reproduced here with her kind permission.

Fokke

Our history starts with the book by David W. Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language:
How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton 2007. The idea is that there were Proto-Indo-Europeans in the years 4000 BC in the steppes above the Caucasus, who tamed the horse, invented the wheel and axle, carriage and chariot, and happened to conquer the world.

Hence, if we want to understand who is important in the world, we must investigate their relation to the horse. In Wolfram Alpha, we can run a regression on people and horses. On average there are 4 horses per 1000 human persons. Some countries are very horse-prone and others haven’t learned to ride yet.

MSP-graph

MSP-result

Important are the USA and Russia with 30 resp. 10 horses per capita. A key datum is that Holland has more horses per capita than the United Kingdom.

  Both in millions  
2008 vs 2010 Horses People H / P 1000
USA 9.50 309.0 30.7
Russia 1.35 140.0 9.6
UK 0.38 61.9 6.2
Holland 0.13 16.7 8.0

In the city of The Hague it is not uncommon that a street has an alley that leads to some backdoor stable. Even low income neighbourhoods have their horses, some kept in the living room. The tradition however seems to be waning. The latest Haagse Paardendagen were already in 1999. Many Dutch migrated to the USA where their horses have more space to run about.

In Holland, Sinterklaas (Santa Claus) rides a horse, Amerigo, and not some sled with reindeer. It was also an emotional report on national television, last March 16, how Salinero retired from the world championship tournaments and joined the former champion Bonfire in the meadow.

In 1688-91 England had the Glorious Revolution, when William III of Orange married Mary II and became king of England. The English tend to describe it as a home-grown event but it was a veritable invasion in which the Dutch actually conquered the Isles. It took the size of twice the Armada, with 500 ships with 40000 men, and, not to be discounted, 5000 horses. Historian Jonathan Israel described the invasion in 1992, and Lisa Jardin turned it into a book Going Dutch 2008. The invasion established that Northern Europe remained Protestant. It meant power to the UK Parliament with the Bill of Rights of 1689, and decent finance with the Bank of England of 1694, though some people are still critical about both Parliament and Bank. The Dutch relocated their world empire from Amsterdam to London, and later to New York and Washington. A florin invested in Amsterdam in 1688 means a fortune today.

A key question is whether the Dutch invasion of 1688 caused a sea-change of the British attitude to the horse. The magazine History Today explains that the British Isles already changed from oxen to horse at the end of the middle ages 1100-1500. The weblog History on Horseback confirms the impression. There is a hint, however, that the British started to treat their horses a bit kinder after the invasion. Perhaps the Glorious Revolution was so smooth because the English and the Dutch recognized their mutual love for horses. William III was half-English anyway: his mother was Mary I, daughter of Charles I.

A sea-change however was caused by the horse Sorrel, named after his sorrel colour. Wikipedia: “In 1702, William died of pneumonia, a complication from a broken collarbone following a fall from his horse, Sorrel. Because his horse had stumbled into a mole’s burrow, many Jacobites toasted “the little gentleman in the black velvet waistcoat.””

We now enter serious history making. One reason for protestant William III to invade England was to put a stop to the ambitions of catholic Louis XIV of France. The events lead up to the Treaty of Utrecht 1713 that established peace and freedom of religion – soon 300 years ago to the day.

1672 Rampjaar” for Holland, as it is attacked by France, England and two German bishops
1688-91 The Dutch reply: the Glorious Revolution
1700 Charles II of Spain dies without apparent heir but appoints Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV of France. Louis XIV lets him be crowned quickly
1701 William III forges an alliance against Louis XIV
1702 William III dies but his alliance persists
1704, 1706, 1708 Victories of the alliance at Blenheim, Ramilles, Oudenaarde
1710 (Financial) exhaustion, and first efforts at peace talks
1711 German emperor Joseph I dies, with a threat of a Spanish-German superpower
April 11, 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. The notion of balance of power – as long as it lasted

The fabric of peace wasn’t perfect yet. William III was succeeded by the House of Hanover. The Prussian emperor Wilhelm II (1859-1941) hated his Hanover-English mother and was envious of the empire of his Hanover-English grandmother Queen Victoria (1819-1901) and thus started World War I, in which many innocent horses were killed. (I follow and agree with Sebastian Haffner on his analysis in the “Seven deadly sins”.)

So now you may understand where the notion of the “European Union” derives from. In the divide and rule method, the Dutch with their secret diplomacy and financial control make sure that other nations fight their wars or fight amongst themselves, so that there is peace and religious freedom behind the dikes including a decent Return on Foreign Investment. The main Dutch objective is that they can ride their horses as they have been doing since 4000 BC. The story is a bit more complicated since Poseidon is the god of both horses and seas, but we reserve ships for another moment.

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